Django migrations are how we handle changes to the database in Sentry.
Django migration official docs: https://docs.djangoproject.com/en/1.11/topics/migrations/ . These will cover most things you need to understand what a migration is doing.
Note that for all of these commands you can substitute
sentry if in the
sentry upgrade will automatically bring your migrations up to date. You can also run
sentry django migrate to access the migration command directly.
This can be helpful for when you want to test a migration.
sentry django migrate <app_name> <migration_name> - Note that
migration_name can be a partial match, often the number is all you need.
sentry django migrate sentry 0005
This can be used to roll a migration back as well. Useful in dev if you make a mistake.
This is helpful for people reviewing your code, since it's not always clear exactly what a Django migration is actually going to do.
sentry django sqlmigrate <app_name> <migration_name>
sentry django sqlmigrate sentry 0003
This generates migrations for you automatically based on changes you've made to models.
sentry django makemigrations
sentry django makemigrations <app_name> for a specific app.
sentry django makemigrations sentry
When you include a migration in a pr, also generate the sql for the migration and include it as a comment so that your reviewers can more easily understand what Django is doing.
You can also generate an empty migration with
sentry django makemigrations <app_name> --empty. This is useful for data migrations and other custom work.
When merging to master you might notice a conflict with
migrations_lockfile.txt. This file is in place to help us avoid merging two migrations with the same migration number to master, and if you're conflicting with it then it's likely someone has committed a migration ahead of you.
To resolve this, rebase against latest master, delete your current migration and then regenerate it. If your migration was custom, just save the operations in a text file somewhere so that you can reapply them on the regenerated migration.
Always commit the changes to
migrations_lockfile.txt with your migration.
There are some things we need to be careful about when running migrations.
If a (data) migration involves large tables, or columns that aren't indexed it is better to iterate over the entire table instead of using a filter. For example:
Because there are too many
EnvironmentProject rows, this will lock the whole table.
Instead we should iterate over all the
Environment rows using
RangeQuerySetWrapperWithProgressBar since it will do it in chunks.
for env in RangeQuerySetWrapperWithProgressBar(Environment.objects.all()): if env.name == 'none': # Do what you need
This will run slower, but that's better than locking the database.
We prefer to create indexes on large existing tables with
CREATE INDEX CONCURRENTLY. When we do this we can't run the migration in a transaction, so it's important to use
atomic = False to run these.
This is complicated due to our deploy process. When we deploy, we run migrations, and then push out the application code, which takes a while. This means that if we just delete a column or model, then code in sentry will be looking for those columns/tables and erroring until the deploy completes. In some cases, this can mean sentry is hard down until the deploy is finished.
To avoid this, follow these steps:
- Mark the column as nullable if it isn't, and create a migration.
- Remove the column from the model, but in the migration make sure we only mark the state as removed.
- Finally, create a migration that deletes the column.
Here's an example of removing columns that were already nullable. First we remove the columns from the model, and then modify the migration to only update the state and make no database operations.
operations = [ migrations.SeparateDatabaseAndState( database_operations=, state_operations=[ migrations.RemoveField(model_name="alertrule", name="alert_threshold"), migrations.RemoveField(model_name="alertrule", name="resolve_threshold"), migrations.RemoveField(model_name="alertrule", name="threshold_type"), ], ) ]
Once this is deployed, we can then deploy the actual column deletion. This pr will have only a migration, since Django no longer knows about these fields. Note that the reverse SQL is only for dev, so it's fine to not assign a default or do any sort of backfill:
operations = [ migrations.SeparateDatabaseAndState( database_operations=[ migrations.RunSQL( """ ALTER TABLE "sentry_alertrule" DROP COLUMN "alert_threshold"; ALTER TABLE "sentry_alertrule" DROP COLUMN "resolve_threshold"; ALTER TABLE "sentry_alertrule" DROP COLUMN "threshold_type"; """, reverse_sql=""" ALTER TABLE "sentry_alertrule" ADD COLUMN "alert_threshold" smallint NULL; ALTER TABLE "sentry_alertrule" ADD COLUMN "resolve_threshold" int NULL; ALTER TABLE "sentry_alertrule" ADD COLUMN "threshold_type" int NULL; """, ) ], state_operations=, ) ]
Extra care is needed here if the table is referenced as a foreign key in other tables. In that case, first remove the foreign key columns in the other tables, then come back to this step.
- Remove any database level foreign key constraints from this table to other tables by setting
db_constraint=Falseon the columns.
- Remove the model and all references from the sentry codebase. Make sure that the migration only marks the state as removed.
- Create a migrations that deletes the table.
Here's an example of removing this model:
class AlertRuleTriggerAction(Model): alert_rule_trigger = FlexibleForeignKey("sentry.AlertRuleTrigger") integration = FlexibleForeignKey("sentry.Integration", null=True) type = models.SmallIntegerField() target_type = models.SmallIntegerField() # Identifier used to perform the action on a given target target_identifier = models.TextField(null=True) # Human readable name to display in the UI target_display = models.TextField(null=True) date_added = models.DateTimeField(default=timezone.now) class Meta: app_label = "sentry" db_table = "sentry_alertruletriggeraction"
First we checked that it's not referenced by any other models, and it's not. Next we need to remove and db level foreign key constraints. To do this, we change these two columns and generate a migration:
alert_rule_trigger = FlexibleForeignKey("sentry.AlertRuleTrigger", db_constraint=False) integration = FlexibleForeignKey("sentry.Integration", null=True, db_constraint=False)
The operations in the migration look like
operations = [ migrations.AlterField( model_name='alertruletriggeraction', name='alert_rule_trigger', field=sentry.db.models.fields.foreignkey.FlexibleForeignKey(db_constraint=False, on_delete=django.db.models.deletion.CASCADE, to='sentry.AlertRuleTrigger'), ), migrations.AlterField( model_name='alertruletriggeraction', name='integration', field=sentry.db.models.fields.foreignkey.FlexibleForeignKey(db_constraint=False, null=True, on_delete=django.db.models.deletion.CASCADE, to='sentry.Integration'), ), ]
And we can see the sql it generates just drops the FK constaints
BEGIN; SET CONSTRAINTS "a875987ae7debe6be88869cb2eebcdc5" IMMEDIATE; ALTER TABLE "sentry_alertruletriggeraction" DROP CONSTRAINT "a875987ae7debe6be88869cb2eebcdc5"; SET CONSTRAINTS "sentry_integration_id_14286d876e86361c_fk_sentry_integration_id" IMMEDIATE; ALTER TABLE "sentry_alertruletriggeraction" DROP CONSTRAINT "sentry_integration_id_14286d876e86361c_fk_sentry_integration_id"; COMMIT;
So now we deploy this and move onto the next stage.
The next stage involves removing all references to the model from the codebase. So we do that, and then we generate a migration that removes the model from the migration state, but not the database. The operations in this migration look like
operations = [ migrations.SeparateDatabaseAndState( state_operations=[migrations.DeleteModel(name="AlertRuleTriggerAction")], database_operations=, ) ]
and the generated SQL shows no database changes occurring. So now we deploy this and move into the final step.
In this last step, we just want to manually write DDL to remove the table. So we use
sentry django makemigrations --empty to produce an empty migration, and then modify the operations to be like:
operations = [ migrations.RunSQL( """ DROP TABLE "sentry_alertruletriggeraction"; """, reverse_sql="CREATE TABLE sentry_alertruletriggeraction (fake_col int)", # We just create a fake table here so that the DROP will work if we roll back the migration. ) ]
Then we deploy this and we're done.
Creating foreign keys is mostly fine, but for some large/busy tables like
Group it can cause problems due to difficulties in acquiring a lock. You can still create a Django level foreign key though, without creating a database constraint. To do so, set
db_constraint=False when defining the key.